Why Do Natural Disasters Happen?
In the Quran, The Creator has said concerning disasters:
And certainly, We shall test you with something of fear, hunger, loss of wealth, lives and fruits, but give glad tidings to As-Sâbirin (the patient ones, etc.). (Al-Quran: Al-Baqarah 2:155)
And verily, We will make them taste of the near torment (i.e. the torment in the life of this world, i.e. disasters, calamities, etc.) prior to the supreme torment (in the Hereafter), in order that they may (repent and) return. (Al-Quran: As-Sajdah 32:21)
So We punished each (of them) for his sins, of them were some on whom We sent Hasiban (a violent wind with shower of stones) [as the people of Lout (Lot)], and of them were some who were overtaken by AsSaihah [torment awful cry, etc. (as Thamud or Shu’aib’s people)], and of them were some whom We caused the earth to swallow [as Qarun (Korah)], and of them were some whom We drowned [as the people of Nuh (Noah), or Fir’aun (Pharaoh) and his people]. It was not Allah Who wronged them, but they wronged themselves. (Al-Quran: Al-Ankabut, Verse 40)
The Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him) has said regarding disasters:
Abu Hurairah reported that the Messenger of Allah (pbuh) said, “When, booty will be taken as a private property, property given in trust is treated as a gain, Zakat (obligatory charity) is considered as a burden, learning will be acquired other than for religion, a man shall obey his wife and disobey his mother, he shall draw his friend near and drive his father far off, voices shall be loud in the masaajid, the sinner among a people shall become their leader, the leader among a people shall become the vilest of them, a man shall be honored out of fear of his mischief, singing girls and musical instruments shall appear, wine will be drunk, and the latter generations of this people will curse their former ones – Wait at that time for a violent windstorm, an earthquake, and sinking down of earth, and deformity/mutilation of men, and falling/raining of stones and objects from the sky, and several signs that will follow like a string of gems whose string has been cut of and so they fall one after another”. (Al-Tirmidhi, 5450)
The Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) also said, “The Hour (Last Day) will not be established until (religious) knowledge will be taken away (by the death of religious learned men), earthquakes will be very frequent, time will pass quickly, afflictions will appear, murders will increase and money will overflow amongst you.” (Sahih Al-Bukhari #979)